Dry eye

The dry eye is an eye disease characterized by a change in the quality and/or the amount of tears resulting in damage to the eye surface.


The tears are produced by the tear glands that are uniformly distributed over the surface of the cornea and conjunctiva through the involuntary closure of the eyelids, thus forming the tear film.

In the healthy eye, the tear film constantly coats the surface of the conjunctiva, keeping it moist, nourished and hydrogenated. The tear film is composed of a lipid (fat) layer, an aqueous layer and mucosal layer, with the task of protecting the eye from bacteria, toxic substances and small foreign bodies. In the dry eye, however, the tear film is altered and can no longer perform its normal functions.


There are 2 dry eye shapes due to:

  • diminution in the production of tears determined by age, use of systemic drugs, use of contact lenses.
  • excessive evaporation of tears due to malfunction of the glands that produce the lipid part of the lacrimal film, eyelid opening and closing disorders, contact lenses and allergies


The typical symptoms of the dry eye are represented by:

  • Foreign body sensation in the eye
  • Eye dryness
  • Burning/li>
  • Photophobia (light sensitivity)
  • Difficulty in opening the eyelids on awakening
  • Pain and glare of sight in the most severe cases.

All of these symptoms get worse in dry, ventilated and air-conditioned environments.


For proper dry eye diagnosis, tests are carried out to assess the amount and quality of the tear film.


In dry eye therapy, artificial tears are also used, also called tear replacements.


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