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Glaucoma

Glaucoma is an eye disease characterized by a progressive and permanent damage to the optic nerve.

 

Glaucoma is an eye disease characterized by a progressive and permanent damage to the optic nerve (progressive optic neuropathy) caused by the intraocular pressure increase (eye pressure).

The optic nerve is a kind of cable made up of more than 1 million nerve fibers that send the images perceived by the eye to the brain in the form of electrical impulses.

Glaucoma causes a progressive reduction in the visual field.


There are two forms of glaucoma:

Closed angle glaucoma
This is the least common form of glaucoma, when suddenly the iris is attached to the cornea and blocks the water muddy drainage channels causing increased pressure inside the eye. In acute attacks, it’ s necessary to intervene immediately to avoid permanent damage to vision.



Glaucoma open angle
It is the most common form of glaucoma. Water mood accumulates in the eye due to a defect in the drainage channels which causes a slow increase in the internal pressure of the eye that damages the nerve fibers that make up the optic nerve.



Symptoms

Initially, glaucoma has no symptoms, but over the time, damaged optical fibers cause a slow reduction in the visual field from the periphery to the center. The disease’s progressions determines the final loss of vision.

Diagnosis

To diagnose Glaucoma you should undergo an ophthalmic examination during which will be performed the following tests:

  • Tonometry: an examination that allows you to evaluate the pressure inside the eye
  • Ophthalmoscopy, that allows you to evaluate the head of the optic nerve, called optic papilla
  • Perimeter that allows you to evaluate the reduction of the visual field.

Therapy

If diagnosed, collisions will be prescribed, which can lower eye pressure, to be used one or more times a day. In the most serious cases, surgical (laser or traditional) treatments can be used to allow water mud drainage.

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