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Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases are among the most common diseases that affect mankind.

 

Some of the most widespread diseases affecting the human race. Caused by microbial agents (viruses, bacteria or fungi) which come into contact with an individual, reproduce and cause various types of alterations (anatomicopathological, immunological, etc.): the disease is therefore the result of the interaction between the immune system and the foreign body.

The transmission of an infectious agent from one person to another can take place in various ways; for example, bacteria and viruses responsible for respiratory infections prefer dissemination via the air through coughing, sneezing and saliva droplets.

When the human body is in contact with a germ, it defends itself by adopting systems to keep the right balance. The first barrier is the skin and mucous membranes that resist the penetration of microorganisms in part with mechanical systems (tears, saliva, urine), in part of a physical-chemical nature (low gastric pH, gastric acid). Next, the immune system provides defences against microbial agents.

The course of an infectious disease depends on many factors linked to the type of germ responsible, patient type (e.g. status of immune defences) and the antibiotic treatment used (type of antibiotic, dosage, length of treatment).

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